Starting with Mac OS Catalina (version 10.15) and including High Sierra (version 11) and Monterey (version 12), you must allow Zoom to use certain system features. This is a security measure to ensure that only trusted applications can control your camera, microphone, and screen.
Allow Zoom to share your screen
To allow Zoom to share your screen, you must give it access to Screen Recording setting.
For additional steps, see the Zoom help page, Permissions for the Zoom desktop client.